Etherbone Performance Measurements


Access to Wishbone (WB) slaves in the FPGA from the host system is a prominent use-case for the accelerator control system. For this report, the performance for Etherbone 'reads' is compared for different scenarios. The measurements were taken in early 2018 ("cherry release").

Comparing Performance for Various Methods, Platforms and Bus Bridges

While Wishbone is the System-On-a-Chip (SoC) bus for communication between IP cores confined in the FPGA of a Timing Receiver, the EtherBone (EB) protocol is extends the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors, for an overview see here. Etherbone works most efficiently on modern serial buses such as PCIe, USB or Ethernet, but parallel buses like PCI or VME can be used too.


Figure: Stack from a user-space application to Wishbone (WB) slaves. The external hardware (not shown) is implemented by IP cores that have a Wishbone slave interface. Shown are a host system (top) and a SoC FPGA with Wishbone slaves (bottom).

The figure above shows the stack using the Etherbone (EB) protocol. From top to bottom: A user program in user-space uses the Etherbone API to configure a Etherbone cycle, that may include multiple 'reads' ('writes') from (to) the hardware The Etherbone library processes theses requests and hands them over to the Wishbone driver, which builds a EB frame (see here). The EB frame is passed on to the EB serial driver, which sends it over the (serial) bus to the FPGA. Here, the EB serial driver receives the frame and acts as Wishbone master to perform 32bit 'reads' and 'writes' on Wishbone SoC bus. If requested, the reply including the 'reads' is send up to stack and back to the user program.


Figure: Three methods that can be used to communicate to the SoC via Etherbone. Shown are three requests (A, B and C), each with two read operations (A1, A2). Requests from the user program are marked by upper-case latin letters, Etherbone frames are marked by lower-case latin letters and the (serial) protocol of the bus bridge are marked by greek letters. Replies from the hardware are marked by an apostrophe.

As shown in the above figure, the following methods using Etherbone are provided by the API (from left to right).

Convenience Functions
These functions allow the to read (write) data from (to) Wishbone slaves with minute programming effort. They are easy to use, as the user does not need to program the EB cycles. As a downside, every operation (read or write) is encapsulated into a separate cycle. Convenience functions have the worst performance for multiple read (write) operation in terms of throughput and rate.

Blocking "Single" Cycles
Here, multiple reads and writes into the same EB cycle, which is configured as blocking. Performance-wise, all operations planned into the same EB cycle are processed at line speed. With today's high speed serial buses, the duration of one blocking EB cycle is dominated by the round trip time. Applications using blocking calls suffer, if multiple operations should be performed in a row: As shown in the figure, the request A (containing the two 'reads') is sent and the user program must wait for the reply from the hardware and the completion of the transaction, before the blocked cycle B (and later C ) can be committed. Still, blocking operation is inappropriate for applications requiring high throughput.

Pipelined (Asynchronous) Operation
Pipelined - asynchronous - operation allows processing multiple Etherbone cycles 'in flight' at the same time: Requests are 'streamed' from the host system to the hardware directly one after the other, while the host system receives the replies from the hardware asynchronously. As the serial bus is not blocked, full-duplexed serial buses can be utilized at line speed. Technically, the Etherbone API makes use of callback functions. In terms of "single cycle" round trip time, pipelined operation provides basically the same performance as blocking operation. In addition, it provides best performance for application requiring high data rates and/or throughput.


Figure: A Wishbone slave is used to obtain White Rabbit timetamps. Single timestamps are read in the FPGA from a Wishbone master (dark grey, left and right). In between, a series of timestamps is read from the same Wishbone master (dark blue, middle). The grey areas before/after the Wishbone read operations depict the overhead by the full stack from the user program to the Wishbone master. See text for description.

What we want to measure is the performance of Etherbone under various conditions. This includes the total time it takes to go through the full stack from user program to Wishbone slave and back. In this measurement, we have chosen the ECA as Wishbone slave providing 64bit White Rabbit timestamps. To start, we read a single timestamp from the ECA (dark grey, left). Then, we put a number of 'reads' into one Etherbone cycle and iterate a couple of times (middle, iterations not shown). Finally, we read a single concluding timestamp (dark grey, right). After the measurement, all(!) timestamps are available in the memory of the user program and can be analyzed. The figure above depicts a couple of possibilities to analyze the data.
  • The time we are interested is the second topmost dimension line. Unfortunately, we cannot get this time span directly.
  • Using first and last timestamp of all acquired data (dark blue in figure). This difference gives the time of Wishbone access, but does not include the overhead by the stack.
  • Using the single timestamps measured before and after (dark grey). This difference includes the overhead of the stack twice.
  • This is what is measured. Using the first single timestamp (left, dark grey) and the last measured timestamp of the series (dark blue, right). The difference - shown by the topmost dimension line - includes the full overhead of the stack only once.
  • Remark: As we iterate over the full Etherbone cycle (middle, dark blue) many times, the difference between the observed times spans using the different measurement windows discussed above is only minor.

Setup The tool eb_perf_demo.c from the github repository has been used ( -> tools/demo-and-test/eb_perf_demo.c) For the measurement, the number of timestamps in the Etherbone cycle (1..8) is varied. The Etherbone cycle is repeated 90 times. The measurement is repeated for variety of Etherbone access methods, host systems and serial buses. Because the measurement via GigE was connecting the SCU and the host via one White Rabbit switch, data for blocking operation using GigE can not be compared and are not shown. Remark: In case of the Exploder, the GigE interface was directly connected to the network interface of a host PC. In case of the SCU, the host PC was connected via one White Rabbit Switch.


Data and figures are available as attachment. Here, only a few graphs are shown. The following data are displayed for all figures.
Host and Serial Bus color method symbol
SCU via PCIe red blocking hourglass
SCU via PCIe red pipelined arrow
SCU via GigE yellow blocking hourglass
SCU via GigE yellow pipelined arrow
Exploder via GigE blue blocking hourglass
Exploder via GigE blue pipelined arrow
Exploder via USB green blocking hourglass
Exploder via USB green pipelined arrow
The data are given without error bars. For PCIe and USB, the error is in the order of 10%. For GigE, the error maybe as large as 20% due to other network traffic.

Figure: Time in microseconds it takes to read 8 bytes (64bit timestamp) from the ECA as a function of the number of timestamps per EB cycle. Note the logarithmic scale.

The above figure shows the time it takes to read 8 bytes. For blocking operation this time equals the round trip time of a single EB cycle. In contrast, the time required for processing 8 is reduced by pipelined (non-blocking) operation, when multiple cycles are sent in a row.

Figure: Rate in kilohertz that can be achieved when reading 8 bytes (64bit timestamp) from the ECA as a function of the number of timestamps per EB cycle. Note the logarithmic scale.

Figure: Throughput in Megabits per second that can be achieved when reading 8 bytes (64bit timestamp) from the ECA as a function of the number of timestamps per EB cycle. Note the logarithmic scale.

Figure: Time in milliseconds it takes to read words from the ECA as a function of the number of words. Note the logarithmic scale.

Result and Discussion

Blocking Operation via PCIe
Looking at present performance of the SCU when using blocking calls via PCIe (red curves with hourglass), the following key data can be obtained for 64bit timestamps.
  • The time per timestamp (round tip time) is 25 us for one timestamp and drops below 10 us when reading multiple values within one Etherbone cycle.
  • The rate than can be achieved is about 35kHz for one timestamp and increases to about 100kHz with multiple reads per cycle.
  • The throughput increases from 2.5 MBit/s to about 7 MBit/s when using multiple reads.
When just changing to non-blocking pipelined operations (red curves with arrow), the performance improves by about 30% only.

Blocking Operation via USB and Ethernet
Blocking Etherbone operation via the serial buses GigE and USB was measured too. In general, this is comparable though slower than PCIe: When looking at "Time in milliseconds..." (top three curves), the time is constant for all measurements using GigE and USB. This is a rather good indication, that performance for these measurements is hampered solely by latency but is not limited by bandwidth.

Pipelined Operation
In terms of rate and throughput, a significant or even dramatic increase of performance is observed compared to blocking operation for all three serial buses. However, it must be noted that the performance increase is less for PCIe. Surprisingly, pipelined operation via the slow USB2 easily outperforms PCIe. This is not expected. Both USB and PCIe are serial protocols, but PCIe is supposed to be much faster. A view at the figure "Stack" at the top of this page gives a clear hint. The user program, the Etherbone library, the WB Crossbar and the WB Slave are identical. The only difference is the EB serial driver. Best performance for pipelined operation is achieved for GigE. This clearly indicates, that the fair performance of SCU via PCIe
  • is not caused by using Etherbone,
  • is not caused by the Wishbone SoC architecture,
  • but only due to the PCIe driver presently used.
This becomes even more evident when comparing the difference between timestamps acquired from the ECA within the same Etherbone cycle
  • SCU via pipelined PCIe: ~5970 ns per timestamp
  • SCU via pipelined Gige: 64 ns per timestamp. This is
    • 32 ns per Wishbone cycle (one 32bit word per cycle), or
    • 4 FPGA clock cycles per Wishbone cycle.
The poor performance of pipelining via PCIe can only be due to the EB serial driver, since this is the only difference compared to PCIe and USB.

Blocking Cycles: Performance 2018 versus 2014 values for TLU Reads

Here, the performance of reading timestamps from the Timestamp Latch Unit (TLU) is compared for present (2018) versus 2014


A small command line program was run on the host system. Here, the Wishbone slave use as reference is the Timestamp Latch Unit (TLU). Blocking Etherbone cycles consisting of 3 reads (each 32bit) and 1 write (of 32 bit) were used.


Bridge Type Host System OS Cycle Time [us] Rate [kHz] Year
USB Dell T3500 32bit GSI Debian 134.0 7.5 2014
USB Dell T5810 64bit GSI Debian 80.3 12.5 2018
PCIe Dell T3500 32bit GSI Debian 8.3 120 2014
PCIe Dell T5810 64bit GSI Debian 9.1 110 2018
PCIe SCU2 (32bit) 32bit CentOS 6 27.4 36.5 2014
PCIe SCU3 (64bit) 64bit CentOS 7 29.0 34.5 2018
GigE [1] SCU3 (64bit) 64bit CentOS 7 50.4 19.8 2018
VME (A32) RIO4 MBS 16.5 60 2014
VME (A32) MEN A020 32bit CentOS 6 32.7 30.5 2014

Table: Blocking Etherbone cycles. Round trip time and rate for various combinations of host bus bridges, host systems and OSs. The values are mean values. The table may be sorted by clicking on the column headers,


  • Etherbone works with high throughput and low latency when using with an appropriate driver via serial links.
  • Etherbone works not very well for the present PCIe driver, as this driver is not capable of processing Wishbone 'reads' within one Etherbone cycle at line speed. An appropriate driver
    • will clearly improve the performance for blocking cycles
    • will dramatically improve the performance for pipelined operation
  • When comparing the Etherbone performance for blocking calls, the performance is basically unchanged since a couple of years.

-- DietrichBeck - 06 Feb 2018

I Attachment Action Size Date Who Comment
2018-02-01_ebPerformance.odsods 2018-02-01_ebPerformance.ods manage 93 K 06 Feb 2018 - 18:16 DietrichBeck data and figures
etherboneArchitecture.jpgjpg etherboneArchitecture.jpg manage 121 K 02 Feb 2018 - 15:07 DietrichBeck EB stack
etherboneMeasure.jpgjpg etherboneMeasure.jpg manage 93 K 02 Feb 2018 - 15:08 DietrichBeck  
etherboneMethods.jpgjpg etherboneMethods.jpg manage 64 K 04 Feb 2018 - 15:55 DietrichBeck EB methods
etherboneRateReading8Bytes.jpgjpg etherboneRateReading8Bytes.jpg manage 34 K 06 Feb 2018 - 18:15 DietrichBeck rate reading 8 bytes from ECA
etherboneThroughputReading8Bytes.jpgjpg etherboneThroughputReading8Bytes.jpg manage 33 K 06 Feb 2018 - 18:16 DietrichBeck throughput reading 8 bytes from ECA
etherboneTimeReading8Bytes.jpgjpg etherboneTimeReading8Bytes.jpg manage 33 K 06 Feb 2018 - 18:15 DietrichBeck time reading 8 bytes from ECA
etherboneTimeReadingNWords.jpgjpg etherboneTimeReadingNWords.jpg manage 35 K 06 Feb 2018 - 18:16 DietrichBeck ime reading N 32bit words from ECA
Topic revision: r9 - 15 Jan 2019, DietrichBeck
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